You can find the history of the black rose based in Ancient Rome and Ancient Greek civilization. At that time, these civilizations symbolized the black rose as strength and power. Due to that belief, the black rose became a unique and popular symbol in fiction books and movies.
Note that these flowers lost their value for some time after the fall of the Roman and Greek civilizations. However, these flowers resurfaced in the Victorian Era and became famous in the macabre and gothic language. Some people and royal representatives of older times also used it for the flower language, known as floriography. This is a way of communicating using codes to prevent others from understanding the message.